12 Case Studies

In its report, Working Group 5 on Ornamental Stone Heritage proposed 12 Case Studies that describe tools that could assist in the valorization of stone resources. Clear valorization of ornamental stone will lead to policies that ensure better conservation of stone-built heritage, better conditions for SME’s and better protection of stone resources in land-use planning. Download the full report here.

12 case studies on Ornamental Stone Heritage were proposed under five themes:

Ornamental stone resource value assessment (3)

Stone and built heritage (4)

 

Stone and intangible heritage (2)

Sustainability and ornamental stone  (1)

Multiple subject areas (2)

1. Assessment of large quarry landscapes

Theme

Ornamental stone resource value assessment 

Lead (s)

Geological Survey of Norway

Contact

Tom Heldal

Executive Summary

Throughout Europe, there are large industrial and cultural landscapes originating from the exploitation of ornamental stone through history. Such landscapes may contain a range of potential values; as cultural and industrial heritage, as areas for recreation and tourism, as geological heritage, and as areas for future exploitation of stone. The Iddefjord granite, SE Norway, has been exploited since the middle ages, but the main phase came with the industrial revolution. During the last half of the 19th Century, the granite industry here grew to a considerable size, culminating around the turn of the century when more than 5000 people worked in the quarries, producing paving and building stone. At present time, only one active natural stone quarry remains, but the quality of the granite should encourage some further future developments. The study summarizes the geology and evolution of quarrying and quarry technology and provides an insight in the economic and non-economic values within the quarry landscape.   

  • This case study seeks to enlighten the following generic aspects of historic quarry landscapes: 

  • Provide a framework for the description and characterization of quarry landscapes 

  • Develop a toolbox on how such a characterization can be applied for assessing important values related to the quarry landscape 

  • Explore the influence of other land uses and land use planning on quarry landscapes 

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2. Heritage assessment of historical quarry: Magura Calanului, Romania

Theme

Ornamental stone resource value assessment 

Leads

Geological Institute of Romania

Contact

Valentina Cetean

Executive Summary

In partnership with the municipal council and the Dacia Foundation, IGR leads this case study. Participants maintain that the source locality of stone used for historical monuments has a heritage value, therefore quarries deserve recognition. The World Heritage-listed Dacian fortresses were built from limestone produced from the Măgura Călanului quarry 30-50 km away.  Numerous potential stakeholders have been identified by the leaders of the case study; two foundations, one NGO and due to proximity UNESCO Global Geopark Dinosaurs Geopark Tara Hategului tourism and scientific community.

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3. Heritage assessment of quarry landscapes: Pučišća, Brač, Croatia

Theme

Ornamental Stone Value Assessment

Leads

Geological Survey Department (GSD), Cyprus

Contact

Željko Dedić

Executive Summary

Historically, natural stone has been excavated on the Island of Brač and an important excavation site today lies near the island municipality of Pučišća. The stones are prominently used in Croatia, and in buildings across the globe, including the White House in Washington, and the parliament buildings in Vienna and Budapest. HGI-CGS leads this case study that will explore a system of best practice in the identification, description, and interpretation of features of quarrying, i.e. defining and delineating the quarry landscape.

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4. Open data solutions for linking ornamental stone resources with buildings

Theme

Stone and built heritage

Leads

Geological Survey of Norway

Contact

Tom Heldal, Norway

Executive Summary

Revealing the connection between the source natural stone and the ‘built’ urban environment may illuminate the importance of a raw material. The historic importance of the stone resource is reflected in ‘time-depth’, while the geographic extent of its use may bestow a national or international significance to a stone resource. We will explore ‘open’ solutions such as “crowdsourcing” could serve as a method to link with stone resources to European mineral resource platforms. In particular, this case study will explore the use of wiki-solutions (such as Open Streetmap) as tools for such interactions.

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5. The use of calcarenite as built stone from antiquity to recent times (Nicosia, Cyprus)

Theme

Stone and built heritage

Leads

Geological Survey Department (GS), Cyprus

Contact

Christodoulos Hadjigeorgiou, Cyprus

Executive Summary

Throughout Europe, unique ornamental stones are vital to local and regional heritage whether a stone has been used for a single dwelling or an entire town. Many of these stone buildings have attracted visitors over centuries due to their historical cultural value. However, often it is not easy to find information about the building stone and how it is related to history. GSD in partnership with local municipal agencies led the task group to examine the legal frameworks and best practices for building conservation. The source of the ornamental stone will be identified, and the geology, history, landscape and use will be detailed for selected heritage buildings. The City of Nicosia, Cyprus, was used in this case study.

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6. Linking natural stone from the island of Brač, with built heritage (Croatia)

Theme

Stone and built heritage

Leads

Geological Survey of Croatia

Contact

Željko Dedić (HGI-CGS)

Executive Summary

Historically, natural stone has been excavated on the island of Brač and an important excavation site today lies near the island municipality of Pučišća. The stones are prominently used in Croatia, and in buildings across the globe, including the White House in Washington, and the parliament buildings in Vienna and Budapest. HGI-CGS leads this case study that will explore a system of best practice in the identification, description, and interpretation of features of quarrying, i.e. defining and delineating the quarry landscape.

7. Stone and built heritage: the Carrara Marble (Alpi Apuane District)

Theme

Stone and built heritage

Leads

ISPRA

Contact

Mauro Lucarini (Italy)

Executive Summary

ISPRA leads the case study that aims to disclose evidence of ancient technologies, trade and anthropic development numerous ancient extraction sites. Ideally, the original source is important for stone-built heritage and the cultural landscapes. At minimum, stones of similar quality and appearance must be found. Immaterial heritage, namely stone crafts and skills must also be preserved. Amongst their activities, researchers hope to propose best practice and guidelines for inventories linking stone resources to built-heritage. Industry, government and cultural heritage agencies will join ISPRA in this task.

8. Traditional crafts in modern stone production

Theme

Stone and intangible heritage

Leads

NGU

Contact

Tom Heldal

Executive Summary

Although new technology has been heavily introduced in the stone quarrying and processing in the same manner as for other mining industries, traditional crafts are still needed in many cases. This case study will explore how traditional crafts are used in modern stone production, and in particular look at production processes where high-tech and traditional crafts live together in a symbiotic relationship. It will further explore the vulnerability of such crafts and possible solutions for maintaining such knowledge also in the future. We look at Oppdal schist and have invited companies Oppdalsten AS and Minera AS to participate

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9. The Pučišća Stonemason School (Croatia)

Theme

Stone and built heritage

Leads

Geological Survey of Croatia

Contact

Željko Dedić (HGI-CGS)

Executive Summary

Eurolithos partner HGI-CGS will examine the Stonemason's school in town Pučišća in Brač, who over one hundred years continues the tradition of processing natural stone. The school is known for using ancient Roman hand tools when dressing stone. The school is the only place in Croatia and the EU where one can obtain a professional qualification in stonemasonry. In this study case, we will present the stonemason school in Pučišća as an example of the interaction between stone resources and humans has produced a rich and diversified immaterial heritage, namely crafts and skills.  Industry, education, municipalities, heritage authorities are all identified as stakeholders in this case study.

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10. Sustainable exploitation of ornamental limestones in Maciço Calcário Estremenho, Portugal

Theme

Sustainability and ornamental stone

Leads

Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Portugal

Contact

Jorge Carvalho

José Vitor Lisboa

Executive Summary

The Maciço Calcário Estremenho, in Portugal, is a limestones massif where an intense extraction activity of limestones for ornamental purposes takes place in five main quarry clusters. A large extent of this massif, including the exploitation centres, is covered by the Natura 2000 Network PTCON0015 site, which, simultaneously, corresponds to the Portuguese Natural Park of Serras de Aire e Candeeiros.
As a result of the restrictive measures imposed by the regulations for the protection of nature, a large number of conflicts with the extractive industry, have persisted for decades.


In this case study we demonstrate that through the dialogue between the industry and the public entities responsible for nature conservation and spatial planning, it is possible to find compatibility solutions that consider the territory's aptitude for the production of mineral resources and the need to preserve relevant environmental values.


For that purpose, an unprecedented partnership between the environmental authority and an association representative of the extractive sector carried out detailed geological and environmental studies that resulted in a land-use planning proposal for each of the exploitation clusters. These proposals make it possible to reconcile extraction with the protection of outstanding biological values and geological heritage.

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11. Best practices of natural stone valorisation for the preservation of stone-built heritage: the case of platy limestone as characteristic element of cultural landscape along the Eastern Adriatic coast

Theme

Ornamental stone resource value assessment, Stone and built heritage

Leads

Geological Survey of Slovenia and Geological Survey of Croatia

Contact

Matevž Novak (GeoZS)

Executive Summary

Preservation of the stone-built heritage and cultural landscape along the Eastern Adriatic coast and its karstic hinterland face challenges when trying to access traditionally used autochthonous building material, i.e., platy limestone. The main obstacles are in the rigid legislation where stakeholders in spatial planning, urbanization and cultural and natural conservation lack firm guidelines for sustainable use of natural stone as a building material, then for conservation of the stone as natural heritage and finally for conservation of stone-built cultural heritage. Consequently, building stone is often used incorrectly or inappropriately. It is often replaced with non-autochthonous stone or other materials, and characteristic architectural elements of many buildings are often damaged, destroyed, or falling into decay.

An interdisciplinary study in countries of the Eastern Adriatic region addressed the aforementioned problems from all aspects, i.e., from the geological characterization of platy limestone, its occurrence and exploitation potential to its use in architecture, natural and cultural heritage preservation, and legislative framework, including stakeholders involvement through practical workshops.

The loss of stone-built cultural heritage is a major problem in Europe and worldwide, so this case study, which has been thoroughly analysed in the RoofOfRock project, provides a system of best practice protocols for identifying, valorising, promoting and sustainably using natural stone as a building material. They should be used for the preparation of recommendations for legislative changes that will help to protect and preserve both natural and cultural heritage.

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12.Synergistic effect of quarry landscapes with overlapping active and historical quarries (Macael, SE Spain)

Theme

Sustainability and ornamental stone

Leads

Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Portugal

Contact

Jorge Carvalho

Executive Summary

Often the development of quarries is perceived as risky. Untethered development can lead to the obliteration of historic quarries, and with it geo-archaeological and ethnologic information. Consequently, the declaration of future new extractive areas should consider the presence, location and importance of pre-existent quarries in order to avoid irreparable losses.

Unfortunately, active quarrying today transpires on historical quarry fronts (more or less old). This dual reality (modern-ancient works) can provide an excellent opportunity to increase the interest and the heritage value of the quarry landscape. 

Current quarry landscape in Macael region alternates active quarry fronts with a few areas with remains of manual stone-work. Researchers look to the synergy between historical and modern realities can be raised from different aspects. From a didactic and touristic point of view, the co-existence of both types of stone works (modern-ancient) makes it possible to compare and to explain the evolution of the stone-work methodology along the time, increasing the global interest of the landscape.